Evidence of African populations migrating into Arabia.



1. AFRO-ARABIAN MEGALITHIC CORRIDOR:

The corridor...runs in a general south-westerly direction from Yemen in the north across the Read Sea into Eritrea,
Djibouti,and Somaliland,and stretches down as far as northern Kenya,with many scores of sites known from Ethiopia and Sudan.

[Source: Clack, T., and Brittain, M. (2011a), 'When Climate Changes. Megaliths,
Migrations, and Medicines in Mursiland',Current World Archaeology 46: 32–9.]

The existence of such a megalithic corridor suggests Africans were migrating into Arabia
thousands of years ago,thus bringing African cultures into Arabia.

Megalith building African cultures could be found on both sides of the Red Sea.





2. DAHLAC OBSIDIAN

...The main source of obsidian used for stone tool fabrication in northern Ethiopia
(and possibly in the Gash region associated with context dating to c.7 kya [7000 years ago]
is widely held to be Dahlac archipeligo in the Red Sea...It is also suggested that Dahlac obsidian
has been used in contemporary contexts in South Arabia...

[Source: Niall Finneran(2011),The Archaeology of Ethiopia, pp. 65-66]



3. AFRO-ARABIAN CULTURAL COMPLEX:

... dates the megalith stones ordered in circles or in lines in the South of Yemen to the
2nd millennium BC ‘‘and possibly earlier’’. He connects the Yemeni megaliths [in Arabia] with the dolmens
in the area of Harar[Ethiopia] and postulates the existence of contacts between the Arabian and the
African populations as early as the 3rd millennium BC. He mentions the existence of paintings
and incisions on the stones in the Hidjaz desert [Arabia], very similar to those found in the Ogaden[Ethiopia],
as a proof that the African populations were able to cross the Red Sea very early...

[Sources:
1. Edward Keall et al, Copper-based implements of a newly identified culture in Yemen,
Journal of Cultural Heritage 1 (2000) pp.37–43

2. Fattovich R., L’Etiopia e i regni sudarabici, in:
Archeologia, culture e civilta` del passato nel mondo europeo e extraeuropeo, Mondadori, Milan, 1978, p. 352]

This is sometimes refered to as "afro-Tihama Culture" .


4. AL-MIDAMMAN CULTURE

...discovered in March1997, on the Red Sea coast, the remains of a previously unknown Yemeni culture
(called by the researchers the Culture of al-Midamman)...

[Source: Edward Keall et al, Copper-based implements of a newly identified culture in Yemen,
Journal of Cultural Heritage 1 (2000) pp.37–43


5. SABIR CULTURE:
[west and southern coasts of Arabia]

[Sources: Vogt B.,and A. Sedov,(1998)."The Sabir Culture and Coastal Yemen during the Second Millennium B.C.
-The Present State of Discussion." Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 28: 261-270

Zarins J.,and A. Zahrani,(1985),"Recent Archaeological Investigations in the Southern Tihama Plain.
(The Sites of Athar and Sihi,1404/1984)." Atlal: Journal of Saudi Arabian Archaeology 9:65-107 ]

In the book "The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia"
various researchers of Sabir Culture are mentioned: Zarins,Khalidi,Crassard.

Research of Sabir culture has found shared Lithic[Stone] Sources and Techniques across the Red Sea :
in Africa and on the west and southern coasts of Arabia[Sites from Sihi to Subr(Sabir)]


Some of the sites in Arabia have similarities in pottery to Nubian C-group pottery, and pottery from Kassala in the Gash delta of southeastern Sudan.




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